Multi-Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale Across Diverse Populations

Principal Investigators: Sung H. Kim, PhD
Faculty Co-Investigator:
Anne T. Nolty, PhD
Student Investigator:
Bess Martin

Project Description

This study examines the measurement invariance of the first 15 items of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale (DSES; Underwood & Teresi, 2002) using a multi-group confirmatory factor analysis across an American adult sample (n = 1,325) from the 2004 General Social Survey and a Mexican youth sample (n = 387) to investigate whether the DSES manifests equally across the two cultures as is assumed by the scale.


Kim, S.-H., Martin, B. J., & Nolty, A. T. (2015, March 31). The factor structure and measurement invariance of the Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion. Advance online publication.


Kim, S. H., & Martin, B. J. (2014, April). Factor structure and the factorial invariance of the Daily Spiritual Experiences scale. Poster session presented at annual mid-year conference of the APA's Society for the Psychology of Religion and Spirituality (Div. 36), La Mirada, CA.


The one-factor confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) model fit our data better than the two-factor CFA models because of high correlations between the two factors (r > .90). The fit of the one-factor CFA to our sample data was improved when we specified seven correlated residuals suggested by overlapping item content and large modification indices. The ensuing measurement invariance testing of the one-factor CFA model with seven correlated residuals supported full measurement invariance of factor loadings, thresholds, and residual variances, as well as factor variances between the women and the men. Yet, the factor mean for the women was .841 units (Cohen’s d = .496) higher than it was for the men, indicating that higher levels of daily spiritual experiences for women reported in gender comparison studies in the US are not likely to be an artifact of bias in the questionnaire.

(626) 584-5200
(800) 235-2222
135 N. Oakland Ave.
Pasadena, CA 91182